Different varieties of them--The influence

of race--The spirit of the crowd is weak in proportion as the

spirit of the race is strong--The spirit of the race represents

the civilised state and the spirit of the crowd the barbarian

state. 2. HOMOGENEOUS CROWDS. Their different

varieties--Sects, castes, and classes.

We have sketched in this work the general characteristics common

to psychological crowds. It remains to point out the particular

characteristics which accompany those of a general order in the

different categories of collectivities, when they are transformed

into a crowd under the influences of the proper exciting causes.

We will, first of all, set forth in a few words a classification

of crowds.

Our starting-point will be the simple multitude. Its most

inferior form is met with when the multitude is composed of

individuals belonging to different races. In this case its only

common bond of union is the will, more or less respected of a

chief. The barbarians of very diverse origin who during several

centuries invaded the Roman Empire, may be cited as a specimen of

multitudes of this kind.

On a higher level than these multitudes composed of different

races are those which under certain influences have acquired

common characteristics, and have ended by forming a single race.

They present at times characteristics peculiar to crowds, but

these characteristics are overruled to a greater or less extent

by racial considerations.

These two kinds of multitudes may, under certain influences

investigated in this work, be transformed into organised or

psychological crowds. We shall break up these organised crowds

into the following divisions:--

1. Anonymous crowds (street

crowds, for example).

A. Heterogeneous 2. Crowds not anonymous

crowds. (juries, parliamentary assemblies,


1. Sects (political sects,

religious sects, &c.).

2. Castes (the military caste,

B. Homogeneous the priestly caste, the

crowds. working caste, &c.).

3. Classes (the middle classes,

the peasant classes, &c.).

We will point out briefly the distinguishing characteristics of

these different categories of crowds.